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The territory currently occupied Hungary belonged, before the Christian era, the Celts and the year 10 BC was conquered by the Romans who stayed here for five centuries in a province called Pannonia, west and south of the Danube. In the great river, which made border, the most prominent position was Aquincum (now Óbuda). Barbarian invasions did flee to the Romans and the territory witnessed the passage of many tribes: Alans, Goths, gépidos, Huns and Avars.

In the year 896, seven Magyar tribes led by their chief Árpád from the basins of the Volga and Ural, occupied the banks of the Danube and raided across Europe, especially France and Italy. In the year 1000, Stephen's son and heir Prince Géza Árpád, was a subject of the Holy See and was crowned king, thus starting the Hungarian State.

Hungary then feudal covering a wide territory that included Transylvania (now Romania) and Croatia. The state capital went forth from Székesfehérvár to Esztergom, Visegrád and Buda. By then, Buda and Pest were separate cities separated by the Danube and were destroyed by the Mongol invasion in the year 1241. Between the years 1000 and 1301 reigned in Hungary Árpád dynasty with successive expansions of the kingdom and invasions of other peoples. At the time of the Crusades, the country played a crucial role, King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany stayed in Hungary during the Second Crusade and the Hungarian king András II hosted one of them. After the invasion of the Tatars and Mongols in 1241-42, King Béla IV was forced to take refuge in today's Croatia. In 1301, with the death of András III ceases Árpád dynasty.